Sri Sri College of Ayurvedic Science & Research Hospital, Sri Sri University, Cuttack

PANCREAS  & DIABETES MELLITUS

PANCREAS  & DIABETES MELLITUS

In 21st century Diabetes mellitus is one of the main threats to the society. With the advancement of time we have reached an era when the entire world irrespective of developed & developing countries are despairing with the encroaching prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus. The worldwide prevalence of DM has risen dramatically over the past two decades, from an estimated 30 million cases in 1985 to 382 million in 2013. Based on current trends, the international diabetes federation projects that 592 million individuals will have diabetes by the year 2035. The main organ involved in this disease is

Pancreas

Pancreas lies transversely across the posterior abdominal wall, at the level of 1st & 2nd lumber vertebra. The entire organ lies posterior to the stomach. The head lies within the curve of the duodenum. Body & tail lie to the left. pancreatic weight ranges from 40-150 gm.

Pancreas is a gland having both exocrine & endocrine part. The exocrine part of the pancreas secrets enzymes. The enzymes help in digestion of carbohydrate, protein & fat. Endocrine part of the pancreas is embedded within the exocrine part as tiny islets of Langerhans which are richly supplied with blood having 4 main types of cells distinguished as Glucagon-producing α cells, Insulin & Amylin-producing   β cells, Somatostatin-producing δ cells, Pancreatic polypeptide producing F cells.

Insulin secreted by the β cells is a focal point for understanding Diabetes. There are 2 types of Diabetes, Type 1 & Type 2. In type 1 β cells are attacked by body’s immunity which causes permanent damage to these cells. So, β cells become unable to produce insulin. Genetic & environmental factors are responsible for Type 1 Diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes builds resistance to insulin & more insulin is needed to bring down the blood glucose level. As the demand increases pancreas needs to produce more insulin in comparison to the normal condition which leads to loss of β cells. Factors responsible for Type 2 Diabetes are genetic, environmental, dietic, lack of exercise, obesity & ageing.

CONCLUSION

Pancreas is an extraordinary organ.  β cells of the pancreas are most important for the management of insulin & to understand diabetes mellitus properly.

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