Patients suffering from hypertension are encouraged to participate in activities commemorating World Hypertension Day. The first public demonstration of it took place on May 14, 2005. Since 2006, the World Hypertension League (WHL), an umbrella organisation that encompasses 85 national hypertension organisations, has observed this day annually on May 17th. “Measure your blood pressure, regulate it, and live longer.” is the message that is being spread as part of the awareness campaign as a theme for the year 2022.
These drugs are-
(A) Brahmi: Latin name: Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Pennell Family: Scrophulariaceae Rasa- Tikta Guna- Laghu Vipaka- Katu Virya- Ushna Karma- Kapha Vata Shamaka Chemical constituents: Brahmin and Herpestine alkaloids
Parts used: whole plant
Actions & Uses: The plant is astringent, bitter, sweet, cooling, laxative, intellect promoting, anodyne, carminative, digestive, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, depurative, cardiotonic, bronchodilator, diuretic, emmenagogue, sudorific, febrifuge and tonic. It is useful in biliousness, neuralgia, inflammation, epilepsy, insanity, amentia, tumors, ulcers, splenomegaly, ascites, dyspepsia, flatulence, constipation, asthma, bronchitis, skin diseases, leprosy, leukoderma, erysipelas, syphilis, hoarseness, strangury, elephantiasis, dysmenorrhea, sterility, fever and debility. Leaves and stalks are used in stoppage of urine which is accompanied by obstinate costiveness. Poultice made of boiled plant is placed on the chest in acute bronchitis and other coughs of children.
Action on hypertension: A experimental study shows that orally administered Brahmi lowers blood pressure in rats made chronically hypertensive by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) which blocks endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Brahmi is tranquillizer, smooth musculature relaxant, antispasmodic, anticancer and antirheumatic, analgesic. Alcoholic extract increased the learning performance of rats and activity is attributed to saponin mixture consisting of bacosides A, B and other saponins. Hersaponin exhibited sedative action in mice.
(B) Mandookparni: Synonym: Maandooki. Latin name: Centella asiatica Linn. Family: Apiaceae Rasa- Tikta Guna- Laghu Vipaka- Madhura Virya- Sheeta Karma- Kapha-pitta Shamaka Chemical constituents: Hydrocotyline, Asiaticoside, Vallerine,
Parts used: Whole plant
Actions & uses: The plant is bitter, acrid, sweet, cooling, soporific, cardiotonic, nervine tonic, stomachic, carminative, antileprotic, diuretic and febrifuge. It is useful in insomnia, cardiac debility, epilepsy, laryngitis, asthma, bronchitis, hiccough, abdominal disorders, leprosy, strangury and fever. It has been found to be useful in diseases of skin, nerves and blood. Leaves are useful in abdominal disorders due to dysentery in children. They are also used as tonic and for improving memory, useful in syphilitic skin diseases both internally and externally.
Action on hypertension: Centella asiatica was reported to act on the connective tissues of the vascular wall, being effective in hypertensive microangiopathy and venous insufficiency and decreasing capillary filtration rate by improving microcirculatory parameters. In a placebo-controlled, randomized trial, total triterpenic fraction of Centella, was effective in the microcirculation in venous hypertension and microangiopathy and venous hypertension microangiopathy was improved by this treatment.
(C) Bhringaraja: Synonyms: Markava, keshraja. Latin name: Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. Family: Asteraceae Rasa- Katu, Tikta Guna- Laghu, Ruksha Vipaka- Katu Virya- Ushna Karma-Kaphavataghna Chemical constituents: Ecliptine, Wedelolactone.
Parts used: Whole plant, seed
Actions & uses: The plant is bitter, acrid, thermogenic, alterative, antiinflammatory, anthelmintic, anodyne, vulnerary, ophthalmic, digestive, carminative, emetic, haematinic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, anodyne, hair tonic, deobstruent, absorbent, depurative, tonic and febrifuge. It is useful in hepato-splenomegaly and its associated disorders, elephantiasis, inflammations, gastric disorders, anorexia, worm infestation, skin diseases, wounds, ulcers, ophthalmic disorders, headache, hypertension, strangury, leprosy, pruritus, fever, jaundice, toothache, earache. It is good for blackening and strengthening hairs and stopping haemorrhages and fluxes and for strengthening gums. Seeds are used as aphrodisiac.
Action on hypertension: Eclipta alba Hassk (Bhringaraja) is recently reported to have diuretic & antihypertensive activity in an ayurvedic study. This creates renewed interest for scientific evaluation of the claimed activity. Eclipta alba Hassk. exhibited significant antihypertensive activity against fructose induced hypertension in rats.
(D) Vacha: Synonyms: Ugragandha, Shadgrantha, Golomi. Latin name: Acorus calamus Linn. Family: Araceae Rasa- Katu, Tikta Guna- Laghu,Tikshna Vipaka- Katu Virya- Ushna Karma-Kaphavataghna Chemical constituents: Asaryl aldehyde, A-asarone, B-asarone, Acorin, Eugenol.
Parts used: Rhizome
Actions & uses: The rhizome is acrid, bitter, thermogenic, aromatic, intellect promoting, emetic, laxative, carminative, stomachic, anthelmintic, emmenagogue, diuretic, alexeteric, anodyne, expectorant, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, anticonvulasant, resuscitative, sudorific, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, sialagogue, insecticidal, tranquillising, nervine tonic, sedative. It is useful in stomatopathy, hoarseness, colic, flatulence, dyspepsia, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, nephropathy, calculi, strangury, cough, bronchitis, odontalgia, pectoralgia, hepatodynia, otalgia, gout, inflammation, epilepsy, amentia, convulsions, mental disorders, tumours and fever.
Action on hypertension: Hypertension in rats was induced by clamping the left renal artery for 4h by arterial clamp (2K1C). At the end of experiment animal were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg). Carotid artery was cannulated which was connected to pressure transducer for estimation of blood pressure. Results shows Ethyl acetate extract of Acorus calamus rhizomes (EAAC) treated rats that underwent hypertension, demonstrated significant (P < 0.01) lower systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure when compared with 2K1C rats indicated blood pressure lowering activity. In conclusions, EAAC treatment attenuated renal artery occlusion induced hypertension via nitric oxide generation and decreases the plasma rennin activity.
(E) Jyotishmati: Synonyms: Kakandki, paravatpadi, katvika, vega. Latin name: Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Family: Celastraceae Rasa- Katu, Tikta Guna- Tikshna, Snigdha Vipaka- Katu Virya- Ushna Karma-Kaphavataghna Chemical constituents: Celastrine, paniculatine.
Parts used: Root, bark, leaf, seed, seed oil.
Actions & uses: The bark is abortifacient, depurative and brain tonic. Leaves are emmenagogue, and leaf juice is used in dysentery. It is reported to be a good antidote for opium poisoning. Seeds are acrid, bitter, laxative, thermogenic, emollient, rubefacient, stimulant, intellect promoting, digestive, emetic, expectorant, appetiser, aphrodisiac, cardiotonic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, emmenagogue, diaphoretic, febrifuge and tonic. They are useful in abdominal disorders, leprosy, pruritus, leucoderma, skin diseases, paralysis, cerebral disorders, depression, arthritis, asthma, cardiac debility, inflammation, Sciences strangury, nephropathy, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea and fever. They are reported to sharpen the memory. The seed oil is bitter, thermogenic, intellect promoting, useful in abdominal disorders, beri-beri, rheumatic pains, sores, wound, eczema. The crushed root is used for pneumonia.
Action on hypertension: C. paniculatus (Celastraceae) is an Indian medicinal plant which has been used in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine for years. C. paniculatus may be employed as a stimulant nervine tonic, rejuvenant, sedative, tranquilizer, and diuretic. Due to above mentioned properties it can be stated that it may prove beneficial in hypertensive patients.
(F) Sarpagandha: Synonyms: Dhawala vitapa, Chandramara, Sarpasugandha, Sarpagandhakhya. Latin name: Rauwolfia serpentina Benth ex. Kurz. Family: Apocynaceae Rasa- Tikta Guna- Ruksha Vipaka- Katu Virya- Ushna Karma- Kapha Vata Shamaka Chemical constituents: Reserpine, serpentine, serpentinine, rauwolfinine.
Parts Used: Root.
Actions and Uses: The roots are bitter, acrid, laxative, anthelmintic, febrifuge, thermogenic, diuretic and possess sedative properties and are useful in hypertension, strangury, fever, wounds, colic, cholera, dysentery, worm infestation, hypochondria and irritative conditions of CNS, anxiety, maniacal behaviour associated with psychosis, schizophrenia, insanity, insomnia, epilepsy, giddiness, dyspepsia. The decoction of the root is used to increase uterine contractions. The juice of the leaves is useful in removal of opacities of the cornea.
Action on hypertension: Rauwolfia serpentina was tried successfully in number of cases of insanity with violent maniacal symptoms and in cases of hypertension. The powdered root in the dose of 1.3 to 2 gm BD produces sedative effects as well as reduction in blood pressure. The senses of the maniac patients were restored within a week, though in certain cases the treatment period was prolonged. In high blood pressure without marked atheromatous changes in the vessels, the drug was found to be satisfactory